The study was established on a mouse model of Vascular Dementia to overcome the shortcomings of rat models of Vascular Dementia, which include high production costs, difficult surgery, surgical trauma and high mortality. In this study, repeated ischemia-reperfusion of the total bilateral carotid artery in mice, combined with a reduction of blood pressure, was used to establish an animal model of Vascular Dementia. According to the study a total of 40 Kunming mice were randomly divided into a sham group and a model group. Behavioural tests were performed for each group, and the morphology of the hippocampus was examined. All over the examinations were confirmed that the following surgery, learning and memory dysfunction was significantly increased in the model group. The results of the morphological observations showed that the number of hippocampal CA1 neurons was significantly decreased in the model group compared with that in the sham surgery group.